स्वदेश की ताज़ा ख़बर, ब्रेकिंग न्यूज़ in Hindi

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

Direct MBA Admission for call 91-7209831889 WhatsApp7050599189

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Direct MBA admission without entrance exam is offered by many MBA colleges particularly Private Universities. See list below. However, it is not possible to get direct admission in MBA in top 50 MBA colleges without entrance exam nor is there any facility of direct MBA admission in best college with low fees like FMS, JBIMS, SIMSREE, PUMBA among others. So don’t be miss guided. Read this article for more information on Direct MBA admission without entrance exam.   

Direct Admission MBBS

Direct Admission in MBBS in Medical Colleges 

Saturday, 28 July 2018

Now Get Direct Admission in MBBS

Now Get Direct Admission in MBBS in Maharashtra, Pune, Mumbai, Delhi, Karnataka, Bangalore,Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, UP,MP,Kerala,West Bengal,Odisha,Gujarat,Rajasthan and Punjab.

 We are providing direct admission in MBBS in MCI recognized Colleges only either through management quota seats or NRI Vacant seats.
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Direct Admission MBBS

Direct Admission in MBBS in Medical Colleges of Karnataka

Karnataka is one of the preffered destination for MBBS as the state has been witness high quality medical education equipped with world class infrastructure and hospitals. You can get direct admission in MBBS in almost all the private medical colleges recognized by MCI through management quota seats and NRI Vacant seats. The eligibility criteria is 50% in physics, chemistry & biology in 12th board exam and 50% in ComedK entrance test.
 Please find here the list of Medical colleges in Karnataka for Direct Admission in MBBS

1 A J Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Mangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2002

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for the year 2013-2014.

2 Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences Bellur

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1985

150

Recognized for 100 seats.Permitted for increase of seats from 100 to 150 u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

3 Al-Ameen Medical College,Bijapur

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1984

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for increase of seats from 100 to 150 u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

4 Basaveswara Medical College and Hospital, Chitradurga

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1999

100

Recognized (Issued show cause notice for withdrawal of recognition u/s 19).

5 BGS Global Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2013

150

Permitted u/s 10(A) for 2013-2014.

6 Dr BR Ambedkar Medical College, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1980

100

Recognized

7 Father Mullers Institue of Medical Education and Research, Mangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1999

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for renewal of permssion for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

8 Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum

KLE University (Deemed Univ.), Belgaum

1963

200

Recognized for 150. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 150 to 200 for 2013-14.

9 JJM Medical College, Davangere

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1965

245

Recognized

10 JSS Medical College, Mysore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1984

200

Recognized for 150 seats. Permitted for increase of seats from 150 to 200 u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

11 K S Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1999

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for renewal of Permission for increase of seats 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

12 K V G Medical College, Sullia

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1999

100

Recognized

13 Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore

Manipal Academy of Higher Education

1955

250

Recognized

14 Kasturba Medical College, Manipal

Manipal Academy of Higher Education

1953

250

Recognized

15 Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1980

150

Recognized for 120 seats. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 120 to 150 for 2013-14.

16 Khaja Banda Nawaz Institute of Medical Sciences, Gulbarga

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2000

100

Recognized When granted on or after 04.04.2006

17 M S Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1979

150

Recognized (show casue notice for withdrawal of recognition revoked)

18 Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1963

150

Recognized

19 MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1997

150

Recognized for 100 seats when granted on or after 24.05.2006 and onwards. Permitted for increase of seats from 100 to 150 u/s 10(A)for 2013-14.

20 Navodaya Medical College, Raichur

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2000

150

Recognized for 100 seats when granted on after Mar2007. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

21 Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2005

150

Recognized for 100. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

22 S S Institute of Medical Sciences& Research Centre, Davangere

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2006

150

Recognized when granted on or after January2011

23 S. Nijalingappa Medical College & HSK Hospital & Research Centre, Bagalkot

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2002

150

Recognized for 100 seats when granted on or after Feb2007. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for the year 2013-14.

24 Sapthagiri Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2011

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A)for 2013-14.

25 SDM Medical College , Dharwad

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2003

100

Recognized

26 Shri B M Patil Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Bijapur

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1986

150

Recognized

27 Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Hospital, Tumkur

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2013

150

Permitted u/s 10(A)for the year 2013-14.

28 Sri Devaraj URS Medical College, Kolar

Sri Devaraj Urs University

1986

150

Recognized

29 Sri Siddhartha Medical College, Tumkur

Sri Siddhartha University, Tumkur

1988

150

Recognized for 130. permitted for renewal of permition for increase of seats from 130 to 150 for 2013-14

30 Srinivas Institute of Medical Research Centre, Srinivasnagar

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2011

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A)for 2013-14.

31 St. Johns Medical College, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

1963

60

Recognized

32 Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2012

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

33 Vydehi Institute Of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Bangalore

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences

2002

250

Recognized for 150 seats. Permitted for increase of seats from 150 to 250 u/s 10(A)for 2013-14.

34 Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore

Yenepoya University

1999

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-2014.

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Direct Admission in MBBS in Medical Colleges of Kerala

Now get direct admission in MBBS in all the MCI recognized private medical colleges in Kerala through Management quota seats and NRI Vacant seats.
We provide direct admission in all the leading MBBS colleges in Kerala in the most lowest package.
Please feel free to communicate us today for the best package and the best MBBS colleges in Kerala
List of MBBS Colleges in Kerala for direct admission in MBBS

1 Academy of Medical Sceiences,Pariyaram, Kannur

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

1995

100

Recognized (Previously Affiliated to Calicut University)

2 Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Thrissur

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2002

100

Recognized (Previously Affiliated to Calicut University)

3 Amrita School of Medicine, Elamkara, Kochi

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University

2000

100

Recognized when granted on or after Mar07

4 Azeezia Instt of Medical Science,Meeyannoor,Kollam

Kerala University

2008

100

Recognized when granted on or after May, 2013

5 DM Wayanad Institute of Medical Sciences, Wayanad, Kerala

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2013

150

Permitted u/s 10(A) for 2013-14

6 Dr. Somervel Memorial CSI Hospital & Medical College, Karakonam, Thiruvananthapuram

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2001

100

Recognized when granted on or after Apr2008. (Previously under Kerala Univ.,Kerala)

7 Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2002

100

Recognized (Previously under Calicut Univ.,Kerala)

8 Kannur Medical College, Kannur

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2006

150

Recognized for 100 seats when granted on or after July,2011.(Previously under Kannur Univ.)Permitted for renewal of permision for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

9 Karuna Medical College, Palakkad

Calicut University

2006

100

Recognized when granted on or after october 2011.

10 KMCT Medical College,Kozhikode, Calicut

Calicut University

2008

100

Recognized when granted on or after Aug 2013.

11 M E S Medical College , Perintalmanna Malappuram Distt.Kerala

Calicut University

2002

100

Recognized (Previously under Calicut Univ.,Kerala)

12 Malabar Medical College, Kozhikode,Calicut

Kerala University

2010

150

Permitted for renewal of permission for the year 2013-14.

13 Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College, Kolenchery

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2001

100

Recognized when granted on or after jan2008.(Previously under Mahatma Gandhi Univ.,Kerala)

14 Pushpagiri Institute Of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Tiruvalla

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2002

100

Recognized (Previously under Mahatma Gandhi Univ.,Kerala)

15 Sree Narayana Instt. of Medical Sciences, Chalakka,Ernakulam

Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerala

2009

100

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

16 Sree Uthradom Thiurnal Academy of Medical Sciences,Trivandrum

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2006

100

Recognized when granted on or after August,2011.(Previously under Kerala Univ.)

17 Sri Gokulam Medical College Trust & Research Foundation, Trivandrum

Kerala University of Health and Applied Sciences, Thrissur

2005

150

Recognized for 50. Permitted for renewal of Permission for increase of seats from 50 to 150 for 2013-14. (Previously under Kerala Univ.)

18 Travancore Medical College, Kollam

Kerala University

2009

100

Permitted for renewal of permission for the year 2013-14.

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Direct Admission in MBBS in Medical Colleges of TamilNadu

Now get direct admission in MBBS in all the MCI recognized private medical colleges in Tamil Nadu through Management quota seats and NRI Vacant seats.We provide direct admission in all the leading MBBS colleges in Tamil Nadu in the most lowest package.
Please feel free to communicate us today for the best package and the best MBBS colleges.
list of MCI regonized medical colleges in Tamilnadu for direct admission in MBBS.

1 ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai

Dr. MGR Educational and Research Instt.,Chennai (University)

2008

150

 7,00,000

2 Annapoorna Medical College & Hospital, Salem

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2011

150

 8,00,000

3 Chennai Medical College Hospital and research centre,Irungalur,Trichy

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2009

150

 7,60,000

4 Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute, Kanchipuram

Chettinad Academy of Research and Education ( Deemed University )

2006

150

 7,50,000

5 Christian Medical College, Vellore

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

1942

100

 Merit base Admission

 20,000

6 D.D. Medical College and Hospital, Tiruvallur, Chennai

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2010

0

Recommended for withdrawal of LOP granted for Establishment.

7 Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital,Perambalur

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2011

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

8 Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Medical Sciences,Maduranthagam

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2009

100

Permitted for renewal of permission for the year 2013-2014.

9 Karpagam Faculty of Medical Sciences & Research, Coimbatore

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2012

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

10 Madha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam, Chennai

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2011

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2013-14 (Ref. order dated 04.10.2013 passed by Honble Supreme Court)

11 Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur

Meenakshi University

2003

150

Recognized for 100 when granted on or after March, 2009. Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

12 Melmaruvathur Adiparasakthi Instt. Medical Sciences and Research

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2008

150

Permitted for renewal of permission u/s 10(A) for 2012-13.

13 PSG Institute of Medical Sciences, Coimbatore

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

1985

150

Recognized for 100 seats.Permitted for renewal of permission for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

14 Rajah Muthiah Medical College, Annamalainagar

Annamalai University

1985

150

Recognized

15 Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Kanchipuram

Saveetha University, Chennai

2008

150

Recognized on or after January, 2013.

16 Shri Satya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram

Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, Pondicherry (Deemed Univ.)

2008

150

Recognized for academic years 2008-09,2009-10,2010-11,2011-12,2012-13 when granted on or after December, 2012

17 Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai

Bharath University, Chennai

1999

150

Recognized for 100 seats. Permitted for increase of seats from 100 to 150 for 2013-14.

18 Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kanyakumari

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2006

100

Recognized

19 Sri Muthukumaran Medical College,Chennai

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2010

150

Permitted for renewal of permission for the year 2013-14.

20 Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Chennai

Sri Ramachandra Deemed University, Chennai

1985

250

Recognized for 150. Permitted for renewal of Permission for increase of seats from 150 to 250 for 2013-14

21 SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, Kancheepuram

SRM Institute of Science & Technology

2005

150

Recognized

22 Tagore Medical College and Hospital, Chennai

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2010

150

Permitted for renewal of permission for the year 2013-14 vide Honourable Supreme Court order dt.13.07.13 in SLP No.25812.

23 Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai

The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University,Chennai

2013

150

Permitted u/s 10(A) for 2013-14.

24 Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Salem

Vinayaka Missions University

1996

100

Recognized

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Direct Admission in MBBS in West Bengal

Now get direct admission in MBBS in all the MCI recognized private medical colleges in West Bengal and Kolkata through Management quota seats and NRI Vacant seats. We provide direct admission in all the leading MBBS colleges in Kolkata and West Bengal in the most lowest package. Please feel free to communicate us today for the best package and the best MBBS colleges in West Bengal.
List of Medical colleges in West Bengal for direct admission in MBBS 

1 ICARE Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Haldia, Purba Midanpore

West Bengal University of Health Sciences,Kolkata

2011

100

 29,00,000

2 IQ-City Medical College, Burdwan

West Bengal University of Health Sciences,Kolkata

2013

150

 31,50,000

3 KPC Medical College,Jadavpur,Kolkata

West Bengal University of Health Sciences,Kolkata

2008

150

 19,12,00

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Thursday, 26 July 2018

General Anesthesia for Cesarean Section

Indications for General Anesthesia
► Fetal distress
► Significant coagulopathy
► Acute maternal hypovolemia and Homodynamic instability
► Sepsis or local skin infection
► failed regional anesthesia
► Maternal refusal of regional anesthesia 

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Preoperative Preparation for General Anesthesia 
► History & Examination, LABs
► Airway evaluation
► Aspiration prophylaxis
► Basic machine and monitor preparation
Factors may complicate endotracheal intubations
► Weight gain
► Oropharynx edema
► Enlarged breasts
► Obesity with short neck
► Full dentition
► Mallampati IV and mamdibular recession
► History of difficult airway
Airway evaluation
► Anticipation of difficult endotracheal intubation (1 in 300 in OB and 1 in 2000 all patients)
► Thorough examination of neck, mandible, dentition, and Oropharynx
► Training and experience (Hawthorne L. Br J. Anesth 1996; 76: 680-684)
► Sniffing position
Preparation and Prevention
► 2-3 different blades, ie MAC 3&4 Miller 2
► 6 to 7 mm ETT tubes with stylets
► LMAs sizes 3 and 4
► Emergency airway cart ready in the OR
► Fiberoptic bronchoscope
► Possible surgical airway equipment
Aspiration prophylaxis
► Pulmonary aspiration: 1 in 400-500 in OB versus 1 in 2000 in all surgical patients
► No agent or combination of agents can guarantee that a parturient will not aspirate or develop pneumonitis following failed intubations 
Factors increase the risk of aspiration
► Decrease in gastric and intestinal motility
► delayed gastric emptying by anxiety and pain
► Relaxation of lower esophageal sphincter tone
► Increase in abdominal pressure
► Increase gastric acid secretion
► Patients not fasting

Prevention of Aspiration-Pharmacological agents
► PO 30 ml 0.3 M sodium citrate 15-30 minute prior to induction
► H2 blocker, ranitidine 50 mg IV
► Metoclopramide 10 mg IV, at least 5 minute prior to induction
► Omeprazole 40 mg the night before and the AM of surgery for high risk patients
► Ondansetron 4-8 mg IV


Prevention of Aspiration
► Cricoid pressure
► Adequate oxygenation of patient
► Treat hypotension promptly
► Efficient and timely intubation
► Orogastric or nasogastric tube
► Awake extubation
Basic Machine and Monitor Preparation
► Monitors: esp. capnograph
► Suction tubing functional
► Airway equipments ready and functional
► LMAs: 2nd line of defense of difficult airway
► Others: ie. meds 
Intraoperative Management of Parturient
► Positioning
► Oxygenation
► Monitors
► Induction of general anesthesia
► Maintenance of general anesthesia
► Emergence from general anesthesia
Intraoperative Management-Positioning
► OR bed should be allowing trendelenburg and reversed positions
► Sniffing position
► Patients in supine position with a wedge under the right hip
► Head and back up position if preparing awake fiberoptic intubation
Intraoperative Management-Denitrogenation
► Denitrogenation with O2 as soon as patient on OR bed
► Seal mask to achieve 100% O2
► 3-5 minutes or 4 VC breaths of 100% O2
► O2 saturation drops faster during apnea (increase VO2 and decrease FRC)

Intraoperative Management-Monitors
► Pulse oximeter probe
► Right size BP cuff
► Electrocardiographic electrodes
► capnograph
► Temperature monitor readily available
► Urinary output 
Intraoperative Management
► Communicate with surgeons and nursing staffs while pt is prepared and draped for surgery

► Final check for your READINESS FOR INDUCTION of general anesthesia


Induction of general anesthesia
► Rapid sequence induction
► Cricoid pressure maintained until endotracheal tube cuff inflated and tube placement confirmed
► Agents:Thiopental/Ketamine/Propofol/Etomidate/Succinylcholine 
Induction Agents-Thiopental
► Thiopental (STP) 2-5 mg/kg IV
► Fast and reliable
► Negative inotrope and vasodilator
► Cross placenta; STP concentration rarely exceed the threshold for fetal depression with dose less than 4 mg/kg
► No evidence of adverse effect of STP on fetus even the induction-to-delivery (ID) interval is prolonged; keep incision to delivery time less than 4-7 minutes


Induction Agents-Propofol
► Propofol 1-2.5 mg/kg IV
► Rapid induction and rapid awakening
► Negative inotrope and vasodilator
► May inhibit oxytocin induced uterine contraction
► Can be rapidly cleared from neonatal circulation
► Dose greater than 2.8 mg/kg may result in lower apgar scores and lower neurobehavioral scores at 1 hour after delivery comparing with STP, but similar neurobehavioral scores by 4 hours after delivery (Celleno D. Br J Anesth 1989; 62:649-54)
Induction Agents-Ketamine
► Ketamine 1-2.0 mg/kg IV
► Modest hemorrhage or parturient asthma
► Provide rapid analgesia, hypnosis, and amnesia
► May depress myocardium and reduce CO and BP in severe hypovolemic patients
► Avoid in hypertensive patients
► More than 2 mg/kg may associate with fetal depression
► Maternal psychotropic profiles: dreaming, dysphoria, hallucination during emergence (benzodiazepine reduce the side effects) 
Induction Agents-Etomidate
► Etomidate 0.2-0.3 mg/kg IV
► Cause little CV depression-for HD unstable parturient
► Neonatal adrenal suppression?
► pain at injection site
► Myoclonus
Induction Agents-Succinylcholine
► Succinylcholine (SUX) 0.3 to 1.5 mg/kg IV
► Spontaneous ventilation may resume in 2-3 minutes with low dose SUX (0.3-0.5 mg/kg), but peak time delayed by about 10-15 seconds
► 3rd line of defense of difficult airway
► Recovery from intubation dose of SUX is unchanged in the pregnant patients 
Maintenance of General Anesthesia
► PREDELIVEY
► 50% O2/50%N2O/0.5% Isoflurane
► 100% O2/1-1.5% Isoflurane
► POSTDELIVERY
► 50-70% N2O/30-50%O2/
► 0.5% Isoflurane/Narcotics
► Minimize volatile agents to prevent postpartum hemorrhage; 0.5 MAC does not significantly increase maternal blood loss

► Succinylcholine bolus when needed
► Nondepolarizing agents accordingly ie. Nimbex, Vecuronium, Rocutonium.
► *Oxytocin 10-40 U IV infusion
► *Antibiotics of choice


Emergence from General Anesthesia

► Stomach emptied via an OG tube
► Upper airway suctioned
► Nondepolarizing agents reversed adequately
► Opioids for pain relief
► Extubation when patients regain protective reflexes; are able to maintain airway; respond appropriately to verbal commands; and are hemodynamically stable
Awareness during General Anesthesia
► High incidence between induction of anesthesia and delivery of the fetus

► Administration of only 50% N2O in oxygen without other agents results in maternal awareness in 12-26% of cases (Warren TM Anesth Analg 1983; 62:516-20; Crawford JS Br J anesth 1971; 43:179-82 Abboud TK et al Acta Anesthesiol Scand 1985; 29: 663-8)
Awareness during General Anesthesia
► Ketamine or combine ketamine and thiopental for induction
► Minimize of induction to delivery interval
► 50%N2O/O2 with following AGENTS reduce awareness to less than 1 %
► 0.6% isoflurane
► 1% sevoflurane
► 3% desflurane 
Fetus Consideration during Emergency Cesarean Section
► Decision to Incision or interval: 30 minutes?
► Uterine Incision to Delivery (UD) interval should be less than 3 minutes (Datta et al Obstet & Gynecol 1981; 58:331-335. Crawford JS. Et al. Br J. Anesth 1973; 45:726-732)
► Neonates delivered after 3 minutes following uterine incision had lower apgar and acidotic blood gas
► Ultimate neonatal outcome? (Ong BY. Et al Anesth Analg 1998; 68:270-5)
Ong BY. et al Anesth Analg 1998; 68:270-5
► Increase incidence of low 1 minute apgar scores in elective under GA
► Increase incidence of low 1 and 5 minutes apgar scores in emergency under GA
► No different in ultimate neonatal outcome

Factors Cause Uterine Artery Spasm
► Uterine incision
► Contraction of myometrial muscles
► Vasoconstrictors: prostaglandin released from fetus and placenta
► Maternal catecholamine release

Post Anesthesia Care
► Transport to PACU with O2
► Hypoxemia: airway obstruction and hypoventilation
► Hypotension
► Pain control
► Nausea and Vomiting
► Shivering and hypothermia